Profilins are small actin-binding proteins that have functions in cell motility, cytokinesis, gene transcription, endocytosis and neuronal plasticity. Four profilin isoforms have been identified in mammals. Profilin-1 (PFN1) and profilin-2a (PFN2a) isoforms are highly conserved in structure, but PFN1 is ubiquitously expressed while PFN2a is preferentially enriched in brain. In addition, there are two testis-specific profilins, PFN3 and PFN4, that significantly differ in primary sequence and function compared to PFN1 and PFN2a. Profilin is phosphorylated at both tyrosine and serine residues in vivo. Tyr-129 is phosphorylated in response to VEGF-A stimulation, and this promotes profilin actin binding and polymerization. Tyr-129 phosphorylation may be important for angiogenesis induced by injuries. Ser-138 is phosphorylated by ROCK and dephosphorylated by PP1. This serine phosphorylation inhibits G-actin binding, as well as decreases profilin's aggregation suppressor activity by inhibiting binding to huntingtin. Thus, Tyr-129 phosphorylation may activate while Ser-138 phosphorylation may inhibit profilin activity.
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*For more information, see UniProt Accession P07737
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*All molecular weights (MW) are confirmed by comparison to Bio-Rad Rainbow Markers and to western blot mobilities of known proteins with similar MW.
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