Intermediate filaments (IF) are important components of the cytoskeleton and nuclear envelope. IF protein family members are encoded by 70 genes that have diverse expression patterns during development and tissue-specific functions. For example, the keratins form IFs in epithelial cells, while vimentin forms filaments in mesenchymal, endothelial, and hematopoietic cells. Neurofilament triplet proteins and internexins form IFs in neurons, while desmin, synemin and syncoilin form the extra-sarcomeric cytoskeleton of myoblasts. The nuclear IF system consists of lamin family proteins organized in a meshwork-like lamina around the nucleus. Vimentin is a 58 kDa IF protein that forms 10 nm filaments that are important for mechanical stability, motility, and adhesion in various cell types. Vimentin activity is regulated by proteolysis and phosphorylation. Rho-kinases can phosphorylate vimentin leading to destabilization of intermediate filaments, while Akt phosphorylation of Ser-39 in vimentin reduces proteolysis of vimentin and promotes cancer cell motility and invasion.
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*For more information, see UniProt Accession P08670
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*All molecular weights (MW) are confirmed by comparison to Bio-Rad Rainbow Markers and to western blot mobilities of known proteins with similar MW.
This kit contains: