Microtubules (MTs) are cytoskeletal elements that play an essential role in cell division and cytoplasmic organization. MTs are dynamic polymers of α/β-tubulin heterodimers. At least two populations of MTs, called dynamic and stable according to their rates of turnover, are readily distinguishable in cells. The proteins associated with MTs (MAPs) are among the best-known factors that regulate MT dynamics and stability. In addition, a variety of different post-translational modifications may also regulate MT dynamics and stability. Phosphorylation is one of these modifications and it can occur on serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues in β-Tubulin isoforms. Multiple kinases can phosphorylate Ser-444 at the C-terminus of βIII-Tubulin in vitro. Unphosphorylated Ser-444 in βIII-Tubulin is an early marker for cells of neuronal lineage, while phosphorylation of Ser-444 is upregulated after neuronal maturation and may preferentially occur in assembled MTs. By contrast, Cdk1 phosphorylation of Ser-172 in β-Tubulin occurs in mitotic cells and may impair tubulin incorporation into microtubules.
Abeyweera, T.P. et al. (2009) J Biol Chem. 284(26):17648.
Fourest-Lieuvin, A. et al. (2006) Mol. Biol. Cell. 17(3):1041.
Westermann, S. & Weber, K. (2003) Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell. Biol. 4:938.
Diaz-Nido, J. et al. (1990) J Biol. Chem. 265(23):13949.
*For more information, see UniProt Accession Q13509
The products are are safely shipped at ambient temperature for both domestic and international shipments. Each product is guaranteed to match the specifications as indicated on the corresponding technical data sheet. Please store at -20C upon arrival for long term storage.
*All molecular weights (MW) are confirmed by comparison to Bio-Rad Rainbow Markers and to western blot mobilities of known proteins with similar MW.
Product References:Yang, FC et al. (2018) Cell Transplant. 27(4):654. (ICC: human neural progenitor cells)
Li, L. et al. (2017) Oncotarget. 8(63):106876. (WB: human MDA-MB-231 cells)
Sitaras, N. et al. (2015) Am J Pathol. 185(2):581 (ICC: mouse retinal ganglion cells)
Saphieha, P. et al. (2012) Nutr Diabetes. 2:36. (ICC: mouse retina cells)
This kit contains: