The Ras-Raf-MAP kinase signaling pathway is involved in control of cell proliferation and differentiation. The Raf kinase family includes A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf. Each family member has three highly conserved regions (CR1-3). The N-terminal CR1 contains the Ras-GTP-binding domain. The CR2 contains a negative regulatory serine residue (C-Raf (S259)/B-Raf(S365)) that may bind 14-3-3 proteins. The CR3 is the catalytic domain that contains phosphorylation sites for Raf-regulating enzymes within two segments, the N-region and the activation segment. Activation of C-Raf involves phosphorylation at many sites including Ser-338, Tyr-341, and multiple catalytic domain sites. In B-Raf, multiple phosphorylation sites have been identified, but their specific roles are uncertain. Phosphorylation of Ser-446 may prime B-Raf for activation, and Ser-446 and/or Ser-447 phosphorylation may be critical for B-Raf biological activity during PC12 differentiation. Ser-579 is required for growth factor activation and kinase activity. Thus, multiple sites of phosphorylation within Rafs may be important for regulation of their activity.
Karbowniczek, M. et al. (2006) J Biol Chem 281(35):25447.
Wilhelm, S.M. et al. (2004) Cancer Res 64:7099.
Mason, C.S. et al. (1999) EMBOJ 18(8):2137.
*For more information, see UniProt Accession P15056
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*All molecular weights (MW) are confirmed by comparison to Bio-Rad Rainbow Markers and to western blot mobilities of known proteins with similar MW.
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