Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is a member of the steroid receptor superfamily and its structure includes an N-terminal ligand-independent transactivation domain (AF-1), a highly conserved DNA binding domain, and a C-terminal ligand-dependent transactivation domain (AF-2). AF-1 and AF-2 activate transcription independently and synergistically, and act in a promoter- and cell-specific manner. Phosphorylation at multiple sites provides an important mechanism to regulate ERα activity. Ser-104, Ser-106, Ser-118, and Ser-167 are located in the amino-terminal transcription activation function domain AF-1, and phosphorylation of these serine residues plays an important role in regulating ERα activity. In addition to these sites, phosphorylation of Tyr-537 has been implicated in maximal hormone binding, dimerization, and transcriptional activity. Tyr-537, located in the AF-2 domain, is phosphorylated by c-Src leading to nuclear export of ERα and degradation. Thus, a variety of phosphorylation events control ERα activity.
Castoria, G. et al. (2012) Oncogene. 31:4868.
*For more information, see UniProt Accession P03372
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*All molecular weights (MW) are confirmed by comparison to Bio-Rad Rainbow Markers and to western blot mobilities of known proteins with similar MW.
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