Microtubules (MTs) are cytoskeletal elements that play an essential role in cell division and cytoplasmic organization. MTs are dynamic polymers of α/β-tubulin heterodimers. At least two populations of MTs, called dynamic and stable according to their rates of turnover, are readily distinguishable in cells. The proteins associated with MTs (MAPs) are among the best-known factors that regulate MT dynamics and stability. In addition, a variety of different post-translational modifications may also regulate MT dynamics and stability. Phosphorylation is one of these modifications and it can occur on serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues in α- and β-Tubulin isoforms. Multiple kinases can phosphorylate Ser-444 at the C-terminus of βIII-Tubulin in vitro, and unphosphorylated Ser-444 may be an early marker for cells of neuronal lineage. Cdk1 can phosphorylate Ser-172 in β-Tubulin during mitosis and this may impair tubulin incorporation into microtubules. In α-tubulin, PKC can phosphorylate Ser-165 leading to increased cell motility in human breast cells.
Westermann, S. & Weber, K. (2003) Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell. Biol. 4:938.
Fourest-Lieuvin, A. et al. (2006) Mol. Biol. Cell. 17(3):1041.
Abeyweera, T.P. et al. (2009) J Biol Chem. 284(26):17648
The products are are safely shipped at ambient temperature for both domestic and international shipments. Each product is guaranteed to match the specifications as indicated on the corresponding technical data sheet. Please store at -20C upon arrival for long term storage.
*All molecular weights (MW) are confirmed by comparison to Bio-Rad Rainbow Markers and to western blot mobilities of known proteins with similar MW.
Product References:TM1541 Wang, Q. et al. (2014) J Virol. 88(9):4853 WB: HeLa
TM4111 Gehrig, S.M. et al. (2012) Nature. 484(7394):394. WB: mouse skeletal muscle
TM1541 Meacham, CE. et al. (2011) Nature Genetics. 41:1133. WB: mouse lymphoma
TM1541 Meshki, J. et al. (2011) PLoS ONE. 6(9):e25332. WB: U3&3MG
TM1541 Campbell, S. et al. (2010) J Biol Chem. 285:4695. WB: human HeLa cells
This kit contains:
|CATALOG#||DESCRIPTION||SIZE||APPLICATIONS||SPECIES REACTIVITY||MW (kDa)|
|α-Tubulin (C-terminus) Mouse mAb||50 μl||WB, E, IP, ICC, IHC||Hu, Rt, Ms||50|
|α6-Tubulin (Ser-165), phospho-specific Rabbit pAb||50 μl||WB, E||Hu, Rt, Ms, Ck, F||50|
|β-Tubulin Mouse mAb||50 μl||WB, E, ICC||Hu, Rt, Ms||50|
|β-Tubulin (Ser-172), phospho-specific Rabbit pAb||50 μl||WB, E, ICC||Hu, Rt, Ms, Ck||50|
|unphosphorylated βIII-Tubulin (Ser-444) Rabbit pAb||50 μl||WB, E, ICC||Hu, Rt, Ms||50|