SMADs are members of the MAD-related family of molecules. MAD-related proteins are a family of intracellular proteins that are essential components in the signaling pathways of the serine/threonine kinase receptors of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily. SMADs can be divided into receptor-regulated SMADs (R-SMADs: SMAD1, 2, 3. 5 and 8), common-mediator SMAD (co-SMAD: SMAD4), and inhibitory SMADs (I-SMADs: SMAD6 and 7). Briefly, activated type I receptors associate with specific R-Smads and phosphorylate them on a conserved SSXS motif at the carboxy-terminus of the proteins. The phosphorylated R-Smad dissociates from the receptor and forms a heteromeric complex with the co-Smad, Smad4, and together the complex moves to the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, Smads can target a variety of DNA binding proteins to regulate transcriptional responses.
Attisano, L. & Wrana, J.L. (1998) Curr Opin Cell Biol. 10:188.
Topper, J.N. et al. (1997) Natl Acad Sci. U.S.A. 94(17):9314.
*For more information, see UniProt Accession O43541
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*All molecular weights (MW) are confirmed by comparison to Bio-Rad Rainbow Markers and to western blot mobilities of known proteins with similar MW.
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