The NF-κB/Rel transcription factors are present in the cytosol in an inactive state complexed with the inhibitory IκB proteins. Activation of IκBα occurs through both serine and tyrosine phosphorylation events. Activation through phosphorylation at Ser-32 and Ser-36 is followed by proteasome-mediated degradation, resulting in the release and nuclear translocation of active NF-κB. This pathway of IκBα regulation occurs in response to various NF-κB-activating agents, such as TNFα, interleukins, LPS, and irradiation. An alternative pathway for IκBα regulation occurs through tyrosine phosphorylation of Tyr-42 and Tyr-305. Tyr-42 is phosphorylated in response to oxidative stress and growth factors. This phosphorylation can lead to degradation of IκBα and NF-κB-activation. In contrast, Tyr-305 phosphorylation by c-Abl has been implicated in IκBα nuclear translocation and inhibition of NF-κB-activation. Thus, tyrosine phosphorylation of IκBα may be an important regulatory mechanism in NF-κB signaling.
Waris et al. (2003) J Biol Chem 278(42):40778.
Bui, N.T. et al. (2001) J Cell Biol 152(4):753.
Finco, T.S. et al. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:11884.
*For more information, see UniProt Accession P25963
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*All molecular weights (MW) are confirmed by comparison to Bio-Rad Rainbow Markers and to western blot mobilities of known proteins with similar MW.
This kit contains: